The cannabis plant has hundreds of compounds, with more than eighty classified as cannabinoids. Cannabinoids in the cannabis plant are known as phytocannabinoids. Each phytocannabinoid produces different effects.


THC is the most widely known cannabinoid and is found in high concentrations in most cannabis strains. Its psychoactive properties cause a “high” feeling.

  • euphoria
  • relaxation
  • pain relief
  • appetite stimulation
  • anti-inflammatory
  • amplified senses
  • improved sense of well-being
  • increased creativity
  • prevention of nerve damage
  • antispasmodic, minimizing spasms and convulsions
  • minimization of vomiting and nausea
  • antioxidant, fighting free radicals in the body
  • promotes growth of new brain cells
  • protects brain cells from damage

When patients consume too much THC, it is possible to experience negative effects. Potential side effects of THC include:

  • anxiety and paranoia
  • confusion or disorientation
  • dry mouth and eyes
  • short-term memory problems
  • potential long-term alterations to memory (particularly verbal memory)
  • increased heart rate
  • sense of slowed time
  • decreased body temperature
  • tremors
  • tolerance over time, reducing effectiveness of THC


THC-A has numerous benefits as a neuro-protectant and anti-inflammatory agent. THC starts in the cannabis plant as THC-A, an acidic compound that is non-psychoactive. When heated, THC-A converts to THC, producing a high; this occurs through decarboxylation. When applying heat to cannabis (decarboxylation), chemical reactions occur and transform THC-A into THC.

What is THC-A effects and benefits:

There isn’t enough research on THCA to definitively state what it can treat and with what degree of efficacy, but preliminary research and anecdotal evidence suggest that THCA will play a pivotal role in cannabis medicine as the industry propels forward. Here are some of the potential benefits studies have started to unveil:

  • Anti-inflammatory properties for treatment of arthritis and lupus
  • Neuroprotective properties for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases
  • Anti-emetic properties for treatment of nausea and appetite loss
  • Anti-proliferative properties noted in studies of prostate cancer


THCV is similar to THC in its molecular structure and psychoactive properties but produces different effects. THCV is an appetite suppressant, can regulate blood sugar levels, reduces anxiety, and stimulates bone growth. THCV also improves tremors, motor control, and brain lesions associated with Alzheimer’s disease. THCV is not common in most strains but is most abundant in African sativas such as Durban Poison, Pineapple Purps, and Willie Nelson.

What is THCV effects and benefits:

Research has shown that THCV is effective in the treatment of a variety of symptoms and conditions. Examples of conditions for which THCV is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:

  • PTSD
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Seizures (including epilepsy)
  • Alzheimer’s disease


CBD is a non-psychoactive compound that balances the effects of THC. CBD has many medical benefits. Some medical cannabis users prefer CBD to treat their symptoms because of the minimized feelings of euphoria in strains offering higher CBD content.

Benefits of CBD:

  • balances/reduces THC’s negative effects
  • anti-inflammatory properties
  • neuron protection against injury and degeneration
  • mood improvement
  • pain relief
  • antipsychotic characteristics
  • anti-spasmodic
  • decreased appetite

Potential side effects of CBD:

  • dry mouth
  • low blood pressure
  • lightheadedness
  • drowsiness (may be a benefit depending on goal)


CBN is created when THC is exposed to air. When cannabis is left out in the air, it will have a higher concentration of CBN; this is why many patients keep their cannabis in tightly sealed containers to maintain THC levels. CBN is psychoactive, but at a much lower level compared to THC. CBN causes little to no psychoactive effects, even though it is a psychoactive cannabinoid. This is because CBN content is usually less than 1% in cannabis products. CBN is known for its ability to fight insomnia or sleep issues. It offers similar effects to pharmaceutical sedatives in smaller doses; 5mg of CBN has the same effect as 10mg of diazepam.

Positive effects of CBN include:

  • appetite stimulant
  • sleep aid
  • pain relief
  • anti-inflammatory
  • effectiveness against antibiotic-resistant strains of MRSA infections
  • immune system regulation
  • anti-spasmodic and anti-convulsant
  • supports bone cell growth
  • antioxidant, fighting free radicals in the body
  • reduces intraocular pressure

Potential side effects of CBN:

  • groggy feeling
  • dizziness
  • confusion


CBG is non-psychoactive and is a foundation for THC and CBD. It is formed early in the growing cycle and is not found in large quantities as the plant matures. Strains with higher CBG content tend to minimize the negative effects of THC for many users.

Benefits of CBG:

  • relief of intraocular pressure
  • antibiotic effects
  • antifungal effects
  • pain relief
  • possible anti-tumor effects
  • antidepressant
  • mood regulation
  • antioxidant, fighting free radicals in the body
  • anti-inflammatory
  • counteracts paranoia sometimes experienced with THC


CBC is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that is the second most available cannabinoid in cannabis after THC.

Benefits of CBC:

  • anti-inflammatory in the intestinal tract
  • anti-tumor effects
  • antidepressant
  • mild anti-fungal
  • antibacterial against E. coli, staph infections, etc.
  • encourages the growth of new brain cells
  • pain relief, although not as significant as other cannabinoids